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images by Sally Kneidel
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Eyed Click Beetle, also called Eyed Elater. Sally Kneidel

Saw this beautiful big click beetle on the deck a couple of days ago, about an inch long.  If clicked away after one picture, disappearing into the brush.

The two black spots are fake eyes that startle birds and other predators and give the beetle a chance to get away. Lots of butterflies and caterpillars have fake eye spots for the same reason.

Click beetles move by suddenly snapping their body at the middle — they do that by pulling a peg on the thorax out of a tight groove, sort of like pop beads. When they do that, their body flips away, accelerating  faster than any other animal on the planet.  They don’t go very far, especially the little brown click beetles that are so common. But this Eyed Click Beetle moved fast enough to get away from me and my camera.  I couldn’t find it again.

Thank you little beetle for letting me take the one picture!

1 Mom, we're hungry!

MOM! WE’RE HUNGRY!!

I saw this family of Great Blue Herons yesterday at a wetland along a city greenway.  After watching this sequence, I understood why Mama usually rests with her bill pointed way up in the air.

2 Oh, all right. Now mind your manners.

OH ALL RIGHT. NOW MIND YOUR MANNERS. DON’T GOBBLE!

They try to get mom to give up some fish from her mouth.  One of the chicks hustles to be first.

3 Jeez, calm down, you'll get some

JEEZ, CALM DOWN. YOU’LL GET SOME!!

Their enthusiasm overtakes them….

4 How long is it til they graduate

HOW LONG TIL THEY GRADUATE?

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Red Milkweed Beetles mating on Common Milkweed. Photo by Sally Kneidel

These beetles must spend a lot of time mating. Yesterday was only the second time I’ve ever seen them, and both times, every beetle in sight was so engaged. Dozens of them.  On both occasions, they were on patches of Common Milkweed. I was taking a walk when I saw them yesterday, hoping to spot Monarch caterpillars on the milkweed, to report to the website Journey North. Was disappointed to find no Monarchs, but enjoyed seeing the lovely Red Milkweed Beetles  instead. They’re in the family of longhorn beetles, Cyrambycidae — notice the long antennae. Not to be confused with the much more common Milkweed Bugs, which are also red and black, but are not even beetles. Milkweed Bugs are in the order of true bugs, Hemiptera.

It’s not a coincidence that Red Milkweed Beetles, Milkweed Bugs, and Monarchs all are red or orange — “warning” colors to birds and other predators.  The Monarchs and Red Milkweed Beetles and Milkweed Bugs are all toxic to predators because of toxic chemicals in the milkweed they eat.

Whenever I see milkweed, I look for monarchs.  These celebrated butterflies are declining because milkweed is declining.  The over-spraying of herbicides on genetically modified crops in the Midwest is a major reason for the demise of milkweed.   Check out this excellent article from Slate.  Monarchs need our help.  Plant milkweed!  The beetles will enjoy it too!

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In this picture, you can see what I think is the spermatophore coming out of the male’s body and being transferred to the female’s body. It looks like an orange sphere. Photo by Sally Kneidel

 

 

orangutan mother and baby

A mother orangutan holding her baby close, in a refuge on the island of Borneo. Photo by Sally Kneidel

I wish a safe Mother’s Day to all the wildlife mothers across the world.  Especially the world’s primates, most of which are threatened or endangered.

Primates are special, for me.  Most animal mothers don’t provide any maternal care whatsoever.  Instead, they lay eggs and abandon them, never seeing their own babies. That includes most fish, most reptiles, amphibians, insects, crustaceans, and lots of others. Sounds cruel, but it’s not.  The hatchlings in those cases are equipped to fend for themselves.  It’s nature’s way. Mortality is high, but the mother lays lots of eggs, so it works out.  (When humans stay out of the way, that is.)

Birds and mammals are different. They do provide maternal care for their young. Bird and mammal moms invest huge amounts of energy into feeding their young, cleaning them, keeping them warm, protecting them from predators, and so on.

long-tailed macaque Sacred Monkey Forest

Long-tailed Macaque mother and child in Sacred Monkey Forest in Bali. Photo by Sally Kneidel

I love seeing primates and their babies. To me, primates share our essence — they can be tender, loving, playful, and smart.  But unlike humans, they’re innocent. They’re not destroying the planet!

Mother and child, White-faced Capuchins in Costa Rica

Mother and child, White-faced Capuchins in Costa Rica. Photo by Sally Kneidel

Today, on Mothers Day, I’m celebrating some of the primate mothers and babies I’ve photographed around the world. These pics were taken in some of my happiest moments – seeing primates doing their own thing in their natural habitats. I am very grateful for those opportunities.

Help protect the world for animals that can’t fight back. Work to stop habitat destruction due to global warming.  One way to do that is to get involved with Greenpeace (https://www.facebook.com/greenpeacenc).  I recommend it.  Greenpeace is a hard-working, dedicated group of people I’m proud to volunteer with.

white handed gibbon

A White-handed Gibbon and her youngster, on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

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Adult monarch on milkweed next to my house. Not this year, they haven’t reached my state yet this spring.

Monarchs have started their spring migration from Mexico to the United States and Canada. These unique and beautiful butterflies migrate farther than any other butterfly, often more than 1000 miles! They’re reported to have left their Mexican wintering area on March 24 and crossed into Texas on April 2.

If you grow lots of milkweed in your yard, some may stop there to lay eggs.

You can follow their progress on the website of Journey North, which posts frequent (weekly?) updates on the monarch’s progress northward.

You can also easily report any monarch sighting of your own, and watch the dots pile up on the map of sightings. This is Citizen Science at its best. The Journey North website is a great resource for teachers, students, and anyone who loves butterflies.

Monarchs need help, they’re in trouble due to the overuse of pesticides and loss of habitat. Plant milkweed! It’s easy to order seeds online. Just Google.

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The male basking in the warm sun on a cool day.

I love spring! Every March, the Yellow-crowned Night Herons mysteriously come to town, nesting in my city of more than a million people. I don’t know why! These birds usually nest in coastal wetlands and feed on crustaceans. But here they are again, nesting 40 feet over a suburban street, 200 miles inland. Where’s the water? Don’t know! But in previous years, I’ve found crayfish exoskeletons under their nests, so they’re finding creeks somewhere nearby. We don’t have as many herons here as we used to, the city is growing so fast – trees are mowed down for new houses, habitat sadly destroyed. But for today, they’re still here. Yay!

3SKneidel YCNH_3783

See the brood-patch of parted feathers on the female’s belly — bare skin warms her eggs better than feathers do.

I was lucky to catch the herons out in the open with full sun last week, an unusual photo opportunity. On the female’s belly you can see a “brood patch,” where the feathers have parted to allow her to warm her eggs with bare skin. You can ID these birds by the gray body, black face and bill, white cheek, and yellowish stripe on top of the head. They’re about two feet tall with their long legs extended. Beautiful!

Sally Kneidel , YCNH

Note the plumes on the back of the head as this one preens its right wing.

What can you do to help Yellow-crowned Night Herons?  Leave trees standing.  Protect streams and surface waters from pollutants such as motor oil, construction sediment, pesticide runoff. When you protect small crustaceans and insects, you’re also protecting the birds that eat them.  For more on Yellow-crowned Night Herons:   http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Yellow-crowned_Night-Heron/id

Too many powerful fishing boats
We all know the oceans are in trouble. Since “large-scale fishing” began in 1952, the abundance of large oceanic fish has decreased globally by 90%. Too many boats with too much capacity are chasing too few fish. Bottom trawlers drag nets across sea beds and coral reefs, cutting down everything in their path. The heavy-duty fishing lines in use by the “long-line industry” could encircle the globe 550 times. Fishing vessels, and airplanes that track schools of fish illegally, are equipped with so much detection equipment, fish have no chance of escaping. Check out my review of the fact-filled documentary “End of the Line: Where have all the fish gone?” for more on that score. The whole story of the exploitation of our oceans is pretty scary.

Meeting Kumi Naidoo
But in a sea of bad news, I heard some good news last week. For one thing, I met the inspiring director of Greenpeace, and heard a little about Greenpeace’s campaign to save our oceans. Read on for details. The second thing I want to tell you is an important new report from a no-fishing-zone in Mexico.

But first things first.

Kumi Naidoo, Exec Dir of Greenpeace International. Photo used with permission. © Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert / Greenpeace

Greenpeace’s dynamic director – you gotta see this guy speak
Kumi Naidoo is Greenpeace’s International Executive Director. He was in my hometown last week (Charlotte) to help us fight the merger of the coal-burning Duke Energy with Progress Energy, a merger that would make Duke the biggest and most powerful utility in the U.S.

But Kumi talked about a lot of things – including oceans. He said that Greenpeace is trying to get 40% of our total ocean area declared fishing sanctuaries, or no-fishing-zones. I love it. It’s a huge goal, but who knows. With Kumi at the helm, nothing would surprise me. This man is fearless, tried-and-true. And Greenpeace has a long history of effective ocean activism. Consider supporting their campaigns by visiting their website.

Now, the second thing I wanted to mention – a very hopeful scientific report I saw last week, which was coincidentally related to Kumi’s comments about fish sanctuaries.

Good news!
Mexico’s Gulf of California has a national marine park that’s been closed to fishing since 1995. A 1999 survey of the 71-square-kilometer park found no big fish, no top predators such as giant grouper or snappers. These big fish are the most common targets for fishers.

But there’s been a turn-around. A recent survey showed that the fishing ban has had a dramatic effect! In the years since the park has been protected, the total mass of fish in the park has quintupled. The number of top predators has also soared. These big fish are indicators of a healthy ecosystem. Both of these trends are the opposite of those for fish in unprotected waters of the Gulf.

The park is Cabo Pulmo National Marine Park, located close to where the Gulf of California meets the Pacific Ocean. This study of Cabo Pulmo is a model for over-harvested oceanic areas – which could include most of the ocean perhaps. It’s a strong argument for the creation of more fish sanctuaries, and counters the skeptics who’ve said that no-fishing-zones could have no effect.

“People who object to marine protected areas, especially to strong protection like here, often say there is no proof that they work,” says Elliott Norse of the Marine Conservation Institute in Bellevue, Washington. “Well here is the proof.”

Although protection of the park has overall been a huge success, sharks remain rare in the park, because of heavy over-harvesting for the fin trade as well as slow reproduction rates.

This study was published in the August 12 PLoS ONE (an online science journal) by Octavio Aburto-Oropeza and his colleagues of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California.

Want more?
If you want more detail about the destructive capacity of modern fishing, check out my review of the fact-filled documentary “End of the Line: Where have all the fish gone?“. This film and the original book version by Charles Clover are both on Amazon. Another good book about the over-harvesting of our oceans is The Empty Ocean by Richard Ellis.

To learn about solutions and actions you can take, see the Greenpeace website.

Keywords: Greenpeace fish sanctuaries no fishing zones Kumi Naidoo End of the Line Cabo Pulmo National Marine Park Octavio Aburto-Oropeza Elliot Norse Scripps shark fins

“Burning in the Sun” featuring Daniel Dumbele. Note the film-festival awards across the top.

My husband loped into the living room while I was watching the DVD, “Burning in the Sun”. He had hoped to turn on a baseball game, but he stopped, watching a scene on the DVD. After a minute, he sat down.

“What’s this?,” he asked me.

“It’s a documentary I was asked to review,” I told him. “It’s the best film I’ve seen about solar since Jeff Barrie and ‘Kilowatt Ours’. About this young guy in Mali who makes solar panels by hand and distributes them to villages that have no electricity. It’s really good.”

Ken stayed and watched the whole thing with me.

Charismatic Daniel yearns to help his country
“Burning in the Sun” is the most memorable environmental documentary I’ve seen in a while. But it’s also a compelling personal story that would be interesting even if the star, charming Daniel Dumbele, were selling shoes instead of PV panels. It’s a plug for non-polluting, affordable solar power, but it’s also about parental influence, about youth struggling for meaningful livelihood, about West African rural culture – all of which are fascinating to me.

Can’t help but love this lad: equal parts European and West African
Daniel was raised in Mali by his European mother after his West African father died. Growing up, Daniel helped his mother install 350 wells throughout inpoverished rural Mali, saving lives by providing clean and safe drinking water. Said Daniel, “For me, it’s nice and normal to be trying to help my people.” At the age of 26, Daniel decided to start his own project: he learned how to make solar PV panels for $200 instead of the usual $1000, by piecing together broken PV cells discarded by American corporations. He uses all local materials to make the panels, except for the broken PV cells he carefully trims and fits together like puzzle pieces.

Daniel hoists a panel he made to a rooftop in Mali

As the DVD unfolds, Daniel sets out to distribute the completed panels, with more requests for them than he can fill. He focuses first on the village of Banko, holding a workshop for local people to teach them how to install the panels and set up the wiring. He’s assisted in the beginning by a solar physicist and a female solar engineer, as he masters the circuitry for getting energy from the panel to the lightbulbs – which turns out to be quite simple. Click here to see a film trailer.

Daniel’s panels profoundly affect students’ exam results
After Daniel’s efforts, the school in Banko is illuminated for the first time, and the students (girls and boys) flock into the brightly lit room in the evenings to do their homework.  The film tells us that the year before getting lights, only 20% of the Banko children passed their national exams. The year after, 97% passed!

Micro-loans make panels affordable
Daniel explains that he plans to sell the panels in the city, where customers will have to pay him cash. Then he will be able to offer “micro-credit” or “micro-loans” to the rural villagers, most of whom are farmers, allowing them a year to pay him back for their panels. Or even allowing them to barter for the panels.

Daniel finds a way to help the world while supporting himself  – a feat that still eludes me
The documentary caught Daniel at precisely that point in this life where he’s trying to figure out how to help his people in his own way, while at the same time making a living. As a mother of two twenty-somethings myself, I was moved by Daniel’s search for livelihood. I also know from my own struggles that it’s not easy to make a living by serving a cause. I still haven’t figured out how!

Afriq-Power attracts big clients
Daniel is making it work. In 2006, his company “Afriq-Power” opened a storefront in Bamako, Mali’s capital city. His clients now include USAID, Geekcorps, and the US Embassy. Daniel’s company electrifies health centers and schools, and installs solar-powered pumps in rural Mali. Daniel recently won a $30,000 contract to build 400 panels to power radios in Malian villages.

Ken’s students were intriqued by the DVD
As I watched the captivating story of Daniel’s journey, my husband Ken was sucked into it too, and forgot all about the baseball game he’d intended to watch. Ken was so enraptured with the DVD, he watched both versions (83 minutes and 22 minutes), and then took the film to work to show his classes. The next evening he told me that it had sparked class discussions about the association between the education of girls and reduction of birth rates, about the concept of microloans, about the diversity of races at work on the project and the inclusion of both genders as solar “experts”. Most of all, after studying global poverty in the abstract, his students really enjoyed the personal nature of “Burning in the Sun.” Me too!

I strongly endorse this film
I recommend this inspirational and informative documentary to anyone – for personal viewing at home, to fuel family discussions, to illustrate multiple issues to students – poverty in developing nations, grass-roots solutions to our environmental crises, communities working together learn new technologies. “Burning in the Sun” is perhaps the most fully-fleshed out documentary I’ve seen yet – a very human story about the monumental problems that threaten our planet.

For more information and a way to contribute, see the website for the film.

Keywords: Burning in the Sun Afriq-Power solar panels PV Mali Daniel Dumbele documentary

Photo showing an orangutan engaged in the TUBE task. Photo used with permission of the researcher  William Hopkins.

Mmm, love that peanut butter
Apes are right-handed or left-handed, just like us. Not a big surprise, since they’re our closest evolutionary relatives. A research team led by William Hopkins of Agnes Scott College recently tested 777 captive apes  – orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos. Each ape was given a PVC tube 15 cm in length and 2.5 cm in diameter, with peanut butter smeared in both ends. The peanut butter was too far inside to reach with their mouths. The apes had to hold the tube with one hand and reach inside with a finger of the other hand. The researchers recorded which hand the apes used to reach inside for the peanut butter.  Each ape was tested on 2 to 4 occasions, in solitude if possible.

Only the orangs were left-handed
Orangutans turned out to be the only southpaws. The majority of gorillas and chimps are right-handed, as are 90% of humans. Bonobos showed no significant handedness at the population level. Hopkins believes that handedness at the population level in apes may be a result of ecological adaptations associated with posture and locomotion (personal communication with Hopkins).  He plans further research to try to understand why orangutans are left-handed, while other apes and humans are right-handed in general. It may be somehow related to the fact that orangutans are the most arboreal of the apes.

Hopkins’ research will soon be published: Journal of Human Evolution 60 (2011) 605-611.

Orangutans at a sanctuary on Borneo, drinking milk. Note that they’re holding hands!  Photo: Sally Kneidel

Handedness in crows too
Apes are not the only nonhumans to display handedness.  In 2007 I wrote this post about research by Gavin Hunt of the University of Auckland, who documented handedness and tool-making in New Caledonia crows.

Post by Sally Kneidel, PhD

For further reading on primate conservation and behavior, and my observations of wild orangutans on Borneo and Sumatra, check out some of my earlier primate posts:

Some of my earlier primate posts:
Trade a major threat to primate survival. March 21, 2011
We are family: new evidence of our close link to chimps Feb 16, 2011
Is males’ attraction to trucks and balls genetically based? Jan 14, 2011
Hunting may threaten orangutans even more than habitat loss Dec 6, 2010
Wildlife trade rivals drug trade in profits September 20, 2010
Laws flaunted: flourishing pet trade threatens orangutans’ survival August 23, 2010
My search for a wild orangutan in Borneo and Sumatra August 16, 2010
Orangutans dwindle as Borneo, Sumatra converted to palm-oil plantations August 3, 2010
The great apes are losing ground March, 2010
The U.S. imports 20,000 primates per year. February, 2010
Baboons are Africa’s most widespread primate. Females rule! December 30, 2009
Mama monkeys give in to tantrums….when others are watching. April 23, 2009
Angry chimp reveals a “uniquely human” ability. March 21, 2009
Monkeys and parrots pouring from the jungle. September, 2008
Chimps’ short-term memory is better than humans’ April 2, 2008
Chimps share human trait of altruism August 3, 2007

Keywords: orangutans chimps gorillas apes handedness William Hopkins

Border collie. Photo: Wikimedia Commons

A retired psychology professor has taught his dog 1022 nouns as well as several verbs, reports the New York Times. Dr. John Pilley set out to beat the record of a German border collie that had learned to recognize 200 objects. Pilley, who taught at Wofford College for 30 years, read about the German dog in the journal Science in 2004. He bought his own border collie, Chaser, as a puppy in the same year. They’ve been working together four to five hours a day ever since.

Border collies are among the smartest of dogs. They’re working dogs, bred to herd sheep, and have a strong instinct to work and to learn commands from humans. Pilley says Chaser seems to love the lessons and always wants more.

Chaser’s lessons

To teach Chaser the name of an object, Pilley shows it to Chaser, says the name of it up to 40 times, then hides it and asks Chaser to find it, while repeating the name over and over. For the first few years, Pilley taught Chaser 1 or 2 new names a day, and continued to reinforce any names she had forgotten.

Within 3 years of starting the lessons, Chaser had learned the names for 800 cloth animals, 116 balls, 26 Frisbees and a collection of plastic objects.  When the dog had learned 1000 names, Pilley decided to begin exploring other aspects of language than just nouns. He has demonstrated now that she also has the capacity to understand verbs. (This isn’t surprising, given that a sheep herder’s commands to his border collie are often verbs directing the dog’s actions.)  Chaser  quickly learned to either paw, nose, or take an object in response to Pilley’s commands, demonstrating that she understands that verbs have meaning.

Chaser has also learned categories. For example, she knows that “Fetch a Frisbee” means any of her 26 Frisbees, or “Fetch a ball” means any of the balls.

She can also identify a new object by exclusion – selecting it from among objects that she already knows.

Visual cues ruled out

Pilley has confirmed Chaser’s vocabulary in settings where she can hear him but can’t see him. This rules out the use of visual clues, such as facial expressions or subtle gestures, that could tell Chaser when she has the correct object. Border collies have been bred to be especially observant of gestures because they are part of the communication between a herder and his or her dog.

Pilley’s findings to date are reported in the current issue of the journal Behavioural Processes. The retired professor says he’s continuing to work on grammar with Chaser, and developing ways to improve communication between people and dogs.

Juliane Kaminski, part of the research team that worked with the German dog (Rico), says that demonstrating syntax would be interesting.  Syntax would include recognizing that changing the order of words can change the meaning of the sentence.  (As in “Bite cat” versus “Cat bites.”)

Chimps and gorillas use American Sign Language

There’s been a lot of research on teaching language to other animals. Chimps and gorillas lack the vocal anatomy to talk, but they can use their hands to make signs.  I worked with Dr. Roger Fouts at the University of Oklahoma teaching American Sign Language to a small colony of chimpanzees. The chimps lived on a small island at the Primate Institute. Fouts was a pioneer in this field, along with his mentors, the Gardners, at the University of Nevada. The Gardners were the first to teach a chimpanzee (Washoe) to communicate with ASL. Dr. Penny Patterson was the first to teach a gorilla (Koko) to use ASL.

Alex the African Grey Parrot impressed language scientists

Parrots have also demonstrated abilities to learn and understand human language. Alex the African Grey Parrot was the most of parrot pupils. Dr. Irene Pepperberg taught Alex to name colors, shapes, to count small numbers, and to speak around 150 words that he could put into categories. Of course parrots can vocalize, although most birds that speak human words have no idea of the meaning of what they’re saying.

Dogs and touch screens?

Dogs are different in that they have neither the vocal anatomy to speak, or hands to allow signing. So at least for now, Chaser is limited to recognizing names of objects and responding to requests or commands. I don’t know of any experiments where dogs can be taught to “speak” by, for example, selecting words by touching symbols on a touch screen. It could be done. But has it been done? I don’t know.

Keywords: Chaser dogs Roger Fouts parrots language border collie John Pilley Wofford Sue Savage-Rumbaugh

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